I am starting this discussion for those who want to improve their knowledge of grammar. Dear learners! If you have any questions, I'll be glad to answer to them.

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i have big problem about "i must have told you, i should have told you. i might have told you" whic one is "i strongly know that i said it to" you, and which one is i am not sure if i said it or not" this is what i suffer from. i cant express myself about this point

here is a additional remark:

i must have told you----i generally,as a assumption, such as, Are you sure not to join this play, I must have told you how fun it would be.)

If you want to experss 'i strongly know that i said it to you', you could say 'I am sure I have told you before'

Dear Huseyin! Here is an answer to your question. "I might have told you" means that you are not sure that you told. "I must have told you" means that you are almost sure you told. "I sould have told you" means that you had to tell, but you didn't. Going on with this subject I'd like to add the following. "I could have told you" means that you had an opportunity to tell but you didn't. "I ought to have told" means the same as "I sould have told" but it it stronger critisism. If you want to say that it was necessary to do something and you did it, you sould say "I had to tell that". It means that you had to tell and you did it.

hi, tanya,i have a question about your answer to HUSEYIN

i should have told you means 'I had to tell but I didn't', I got it.

but I think there is another meaning below, don't you think it's right?

In general speaking, without any accident,I have told you.

 

This is to everyone it may concern and to my dear Doctor. The main rule of English grammar is the word order in any sentenсe. It is permanent and you can't violate it unless you know exactly how to do it. There is so called regular word order. If you use it, your sentenсe is always understandable. The following is the regular word order:
1. Subject.
2. Predicative
3. Indirect compliment
4. Direct compliment
5. Modifier of action
6. Modifier of place
7. Modifier of time.
In the most of sentenсes we don't use all 7 parts of it. But anyway, words should follow each other in the above-mentioned sequence (or order). What u can do? You can always place the modifier of time at the beginning of the sentenсe. Besides, you can divide it into 2 parts and place one part at the beginning of the sentenсe and the other at the end of it. For example:

I was talking to him at 2 p.m. yesterday.
or
Yesterday I was talking to him at 2 p.m.
or
Yesterday at 2 p.m. I was talking to him

All three options are right. It is better to use the one which matches your native language. Then the emotional intonation of the sentenсe will be the same.
What else can we do with the word order?
First of all, we can change the place of indirect and direct compliments. But in this case there should be the preposition "to" before the indirect compliment. For example:

Write me a letter
or
Write a letter to me.

What else?
We can also place the modifier of the action inside the predicative but only in the case it is a single word (adverb). However, to do it you should know the additional rules. And I will tell you about them later. Thank everyone for learning English with me!
Dear Xuan! Here is the text of your comment and my corrections.

Your text:

Thank you for your comment and your help,Tanya.I have an English exam next month.Actually,I feel very disappoint because I have failed last time.But I don't think passing the exam is the reason of learning English.The language is a way to know the other countries' culture.So I hope I can having a good command of a foreign language.I am lenrning some new words lately.But I found that it is hard to remember the words and all the meaning of them.I can't use the phrase well,either.Please help me.Beside,please give me a hand to correct my mistake about this comment ,as the grammar,misprint...Finally,I am so happy to have a friend,a teacher like you!o(∩_∩)o...Thank you ,Tanya.
Tanya said:
Dear Xuan! Here is the text of your comment and my corrections.

Your text:

Thank you for your comment and your help,Tanya.I have an English exam next month.Actually,I feel very disappoint because I have failed last time.But I don't think passing the exam is the reason of learning English.The language is a way to know the other countries' culture.So I hope I can having a good command of a foreign language.I am lenrning some new words lately.But I found that it is hard to remember the words and all the meaning of them.I can't use the phrase well,either.Please help me.Beside,please give me a hand to correct my mistake about this comment ,as the grammar,misprint...Finally,I am so happy to have a friend,a teacher like you!o(∩_∩)o...Thank you ,Tanya.

Here are my corrections:
"disappointed"
"failed". You should use Simple Past Tense if there is a word "last" in the sentense.
"reason for".
I would say:"cultures of other countries".
"can having" is wrong. Besides, " can" is not right in this sentense. You should have written: "I have to (ought to, should) have... ".
"words" is right but it is better to say "vocabulary" if you mean the words you learn.
"find" or " have found". The first option is better if you mean regular process. Besides in this case we usually say:" I find it difficult to...".
"their uses".
I don't really know what you mean by "the phrase". It may be phrasal verbs. In this case the correct sentense is:"I can't (or "don't know how to") use phrasal verbs correctly. On the other hand, you might have ment meanings of some words. In this case you should have written:"I don't know how to use some words correctly" or something like that.
"give me a hand to correct" is wrong. If you are not sure how to use some idiom try to do without it. You could have said:"I would appreciate your correcting my mistakes in...".
"as to grammar". There are two idioms "as to" and "as for". The one we use depends on situation. Besides we don't use any article before the name of sciense.
"misprint" means " an error in printing". I believe, you ment "spelling".

Hope, I have corrected and explained all your mistakes in that comment. You can ask me any questions here. Also, if you need some books, audio or other material, I will gladly send them to you.
Here is my answer. In any expression we can use any person (the first, second, third, singular or plural) but we have to follow other grammar rules. For example;" He promises never to smoke". As to your second question, the answer is "No". If you mean you did something two years ago you should use Past Simple Tense. In the sequence of tenses we often use Present Tenses but only in the case when those actions are related to the present. For example:"Yesterday I met my schoolmate and she said she has a son". She still has it today and I believe her. If I didn't believe her, I should have used The Subjunctive Mood.
Let me explain. First of all "I am seeing...." is American. In British the verb "to see" is not used in Progressive Tenses. Besides, we can use both Simple and Progressive Present Tenses to describe the future action. We should use Simple only in the case when we refer to the timetable (or schedule). There may be classes at school or at the university, TV programms, arrivals and departures of different transport like trains, planes, buses. It should be clear that we refer to the timetable. For example:

The train arrives at 10:30 tomorrow.
The movie begins at 8 p.m.
I have English class tomorow.

When we use Simple Present to describe the future action it means that we don't have any doubts as to the schedule.We are 100% sure in the schedule (not action itself).

When we speak about people, we can't be 100% sure if we even speak about ourselves. So, in this case we use Present Progressive which sounds with 98-99% certainty. For example:

I am leaving tomorrow (I am sure, I have a ticket but I am a human being and something may happen. So, I can't be 100% sure, only 99%).

I hope I answered to your questions. Please, feel free to ask more.

As to that book. I don't know it. There are a great many of different grammar books. But some authors can't make themselves clear. That is why I have written my own Grammar book which is based on about 50 sourses plus language experiments I conducted when I lived and tought in the US.



Mir Jalal said:
THANK YOU for answering my previous queries.
hope you will also help me this time.
This time the confusion is regarding Present Progressive Tense.
1. In a book* a example has given for Future action using Present Progressive form
"I am seeing Larry on Saturday". why Present Simple has not used, as it is TIMETABLED (Saturday). like "i see Larry on Saturday"?

2. What exactly 'Single Word' do in tenses? it is confusing me because a website mentioned 'tomorrow' and 'next...' as SINGLE WORD of Present Progressive Tense but the same website has given example e.g "What day is it tomorrow?" and a book* given example "Are you on duty next weekend?" for Present Simple Tense (for future action)

* Practical English Usage by Michael Swan, 2nd Edt
Hi Tanya...
I am amazed that you are willing to help us with our English for free. And I love the way you explain things. It's easy to understand your explanation.

I have a problem understanding Forms of Other.

In my grammar book it says that:

* Form of other are used as either adjectives or pronouns
* The meaning of another : one more in addition to the one (s) already mentioned.
* The meaning of other / others (without the) : several more in addition to the one (s) already mentioned.
* The meaning of the other (s): all that remain from a given number; the rest of a specific group.

I don't really understand how to use them. I am a bit confused. Would you explained to me more about this?

What kind of form of other do we use in these sentences:

1. Look at your hand. You have five fingers. One is your thumb. .................. is your index finger. ..............one is your middle finger. ................finger is your ring finger. And ................finger (the last of the five) is your little finger.

Would you explain to me when do we use other, others, the other, and the others.

Thank you so much for your help.
Hi! Let me answer your question. As a matter of fact it is really confusing to use those words. Explanations in your book are right but they may be not quite understandable. Let me explain it somehow differently. First of all,the word we use depends on noun (singular, plural, count, non-count). Besides, it depends on the situation. Let's consider three different cases.

1. count singular nouns.
a)we use another if we mean any other object of the set. It means that we have at least three same objects. For example:

She came from another city (there are many cities and we don't spesify what city she is from)

b) we use the other when we mean spesific object, i.e the last one of the set. For example:

I have two friends. One of them is Nick, the other is Jack.
I have 3 children. One of them is in the 3d grade, another is in the 6th, the other is a student.

2) Cout plural nouns.

a) we use others if we mean some part of the set. For example:

Some people in my country speak Russian, others speak Ukrainian (there are also people who speak other languages. I can't use the others in this sentense)

b) we use the others when we mean the rest of the set. For example:

There are 5 people in the room. Two of them speak Ukrainian, the others(the rest 3 people) speak Russian.

3. non-count nouns.
a) we use other meaning the part of the set (not all the rest). For example:

This water is dirty. I need other (some other but clean)

b) we use the other meaning all the rest. For example:

The water in the glass is warm. The other in the jug is icy.

We can use these words as nouns or adjectives. For example:

I don't need this book. I need another. (noun)
I don't need this book. I need another one. (adjective)

These cars are new. The others are old (noun)
There cas are new. The other ones are old (adjective)

Please, pay attention to the endings in the last two examples.

As to the sentense you wrote the right use of the words is:
another, another, another, the other

I hope I've answered your question. If not, I'll try to do it again. I will place an exersise here. Try to do it and I will check it out. Please, feel free asking other questions.

An exersise.

1. This реn isn't working. Please give me .
2. If you are still feeling thirsty, I'll make pot of coffee.
3. Two cars in the yard are white, are of different colors.
4. He doesn't need these books, he needs .
5. There are 7 students from Japan, are from Iran, and are from places.
6. The water in the glass is warm. in the jug is icy.
7. This armchair is more comfortable than .
8. I need not this but book.
9. Your composition is good. ones are much worse.
10. The soup in my plate isn't tasty. I should add some salt to____in the pot.


volkersmom said:
Hi Tanya...
I am amazed that you are willing to help us with our English for free. And I love the way you explain things. It's easy to understand your explanation. I have a problem understanding Forms of Other. In my grammar book it says that:

* Form of other are used as either adjectives or pronouns
* The meaning of another : one more in addition to the one (s) already mentioned.
* The meaning of other / others (without the) : several more in addition to the one (s) already mentioned.
* The meaning of the other (s): all that remain from a given number; the rest of a specific group.

I don't really understand how to use them. I am a bit confused. Would you explained to me more about this?

What kind of form of other do we use in these sentences:

1. Look at your hand. You have five fingers. One is your thumb. .................. is your index finger. ..............one is your middle finger. ................finger is your ring finger. And ................finger (the last of the five) is your little finger.

Would you explain to me when do we use other, others, the other, and the others.

Thank you so much for your help.
Hi Tanya...

Thank you so much for your explanation. I understand it better now than before. I would try to answer these questions but I am still not sure if I answer them correctly. Need more practice to understand more.

An exersise.

1. This реn isn't working. Please give me another one.
2. If you are still feeling thirsty, I'll make another pot of coffee.
3. Two cars in the yard are white, the others are of different colors.
4. He doesn't need these books, he needs the others.
5. There are 7 students from Japan, others are from Iran, and the others are from places.
6. The water in the glass is warm. the other in the jug is icy.
7. This armchair is more comfortable than the others .
8. I need not this but another book.
9. Your composition is good. the other ones are much worse .
10. The soup in my plate isn't tasty. I should add some salt to the other in the pot.

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