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I just had a midterm, and I decided to share my self-made flashcard with you guys. Enjoy.
1- Verbs of Perception (that can be followed by either an infinitive without "to" or an -ING form):
A. Did you see that stuntwoman do/doing a parachute jump on TV yesterday ?
B. I heard your uncle say/saying that he is terrified of heights.
C. I could feel the man stare/staring at me.
D. I overheard my niece say/saying that her father got a promotion.
the meaning is different:
Infinitive without to - means one witnessed an event or a moment from the beginning to the end (the whole thing in its entirety);
-ING - means one caught up on an event or a moment which was already in progress, and only from a certain point, followed it through to the end.
E. I heard an awesome violinist play at the Concert Hall yesterday.
*In the sentence above, it's implied that the person heard everything the violinist played FROM BEGINNING TO END.
F. I heard an awesome violinist playing at the Concert Hall yesterday.
*In the sentence above, it's implied that the concert was IN PROGRESS when the person heard it.
We can use an -ING form after the verbs "to see", "to feel", "to hear" and "to overhear" in order to emphasize an action in progress.
G. When I walked into the house, I heard my wife singing in the shower. (she was ALREADY singing when her husband came into the house. ACTION IN PROGRESS).
According to traditional English rules, the following verbs can also be followed by either form:
To look at
Current American usage, however, indicates that "to watch" and "to listen" are usually followed more frequently by an infinitive without "to".
H. I just sat there and watched my cousin lift those heavy weights by himself.
I. We listened to her tell about her adventures.
To look at is followed by an infinitive without "to" when one wants to express one's admiration for someone's outstanding ability to do something.
J. Look at that driver race! He's incredibly fast!
To look at it is followed by an -ING form when one wants to call someone's attention.
Look at that man crying. I think the boss finally fired him.
2- Verbs followed only by the -ING form:
Verbs followed by an -ING form + (pro)noun (to express an action in progress):
To spot (verb + noun + ing = "to spot" is usually expressed in a past tense)
A. I smell something burning in the kitchen. (action *burning* = was already in progress when the person sensed it)
*the same usage goes to "to catch", "to spot" and "to find". Remember that "to spot" is usually expressed in a past tense when it's followed by a noun + -ING:
B. I spotted a helicopter hovering over the lake by my house this morning.
The construction spend/waste + expression of time or money is also followed by an -ING form.
C. I spend most of my time studying English.
D. I wasted a lot of money gambling at the casinos.
The construction sit/stand/lie + expression of place is also followed by an -ING form.
E. Jill sat at Chris' desk reading his notes.
F. Barry was standing on the corner waiting for Jill to show up.
G. Noas is lying on her bed reading a book.
Some expressions using the verb "to have" are also followed by an -ING form.
*to have a lot of fun/to have fun doing something (I had a lot of fun playing video games);
*to have a good/great/difficult/hard/etc... time doing something (Jill had a great time shopping in Paris);
*...is having trouble/difficulty/etc... in doing something (He is having trouble breaking that horse).
3- Impersonal pronouns:
One: followed by nouns (referring back to it) - one, one's, oneself;
*s/he, his/her, him/her, himself/herself (to avoid discriminating a gender when referring back to "one", instead of using just "he,his,him,himself").
A. One should learn how to solve one's own problems;
One should learn how to solve his/her own problems.
You: followed by nouns (referring back to it) - you, your, yours, yourself;
In informal English, the impersonal "you" is used more frequently than "one"
B. You can't expect people to love you if you don't love yourself.
We: followed by nouns (referring back to it) - we, us, our, ours, ourselves
Often used as an impersonal pronoun when the writer/speaker wants to give the reader/listener a sense of involvement in the text/what the speaker has to say.
C. We should do whatever is in our power to bring peace upon our world.
They/People: followed by nouns (referring back to it) - they, their, theirs, them, themselves.
D. They should learn how to deal with their choices in life by themselves.
"To help"can be followed by either an infinitive without "to" or an infinitive with "to". Current usage, however, suggests it is more commonly followed by an infinitive without "to".
A. I usually help mum cook/to cook our meals. (both are correct, however the infinitive without "to" is more commonly used).
*to let can only be followed by an infinitive without "to", NEVER by an infinitive with "to".
B. I promise I will let you drive the car tomorrow.
*no matter whether the verbs "help" and "let" are expressed in the past, present or future, the verbs that follow are still expressed in the infinitive. (see the verbs "to cook" and "to drive" above).
5- General notes:
*To hover over something (to soar/float/fly);
*Toasted - informal adjective, meaning "drunk", used with the verbs "to be" and "to get";
*dull = not sharp / something unpleasant / colors that lack richness or intensity
*lemon (defective or of inferior quality motor vehicle)
*to be in hot water / to get into/out of hot water (to be in trouble / to get into/out of trouble)
*Word has it = People are saying.../It's rumored that...
* Disinterested vs Uninterested:
Disinterested = being impartial. (A judge's decision should always be impartial. *not in favor of either side due to personal preference*);
Uninterested = not interested in/not caring (I do not care about your hobbies).
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